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ROLL PASS DESIGN - FreeForm Series

This is the FreeForm series of our roll design systems. It provides full freedom of trial-and-error design for the pass and groove parameters. For every trial, the system calculates spread, forward slip, roll RPM, and all other critical parameters.

This is a powerful series particularly designed for experienced roll pass designers. It allows a roll pass designer to complete a large number of passes in a single project, from roughing, intermediate, pre-finishing to finishing (wire block) passes. User has freedom to specify design procedures for spread and forward for every pass. User can either follow the system determined spread factors calculated from our process models, or assign his own spread factor values. As a powerful feature, tension correction for spread and forward slip can be used if the user select to. Though this set of programs apply for full range of roll pass, two cases of applications are in special advantage: one is for high speed wire block (No-Twist Mill, etc.) which is particularly challenging for roll pass designer. Another is to study existing pass schedules for improvement, or to modify the existing pass schedules to create new ones.

Applications in this section consist of:

  • Round-Oval-Round (for multiple passes)
  • Square-Diamond-Square (for multiple passes)


Metal Pass LLC also provides AutoForm series to allow full-automatic roll pass design, in which you only need to fill out the form with basic operational parameters. Applications in this series consist of:

  • Round-Oval-Round (2 Passes, Round-Oval and Oval-Round).  
  • Square-Diamond-Square (2 Passes, Square-Diamond and Diamond-Square)
  • Billet-Box-Square-Oval-Round (4-pass roughing train)

    Related software packages. Usually after pass design is done, power and force calculation should be performed to check whether the mill (roll, motor, transmission system, etc.) is strong enough to roll the product(s). For this purpose Metal Pass has developed a set of programs for mill power and force calculation, as follows:

    • Round-Oval (1 pass)
    • Oval-Round (1 pass)
    • Round-Oval-Round (2 passes)
    • Square-Oval (1 pass)
    • Box-Box  (1 pass)
    • Square-Diamond (1 pass)
    • Diamond-Square (1 pass)
    • Square-Diamond-Square (2 passes)
    • General Estimation (1 passes)

  • Process models used for the software development. Design procedures are based on our technical development to combine recent results worldwide, primarily from Germany, Japan and USA. One of the data sources, for example, is a 10-year project in Germany in a 4-stand continuous lab mill (up to 70m/s) with controlled cooling and full measurement capabilities. Its result was recorded in various reports, which are available for Metal Pass development. Results from Japanese colleagues (e.g. Shinokura) were also employed. However, formulation from Shinokura was heavily expanded to reflect modern rolling practice such as speed (up to over 100 m/s), tension (especially in the rolling block), roll and stock materials, etc.). A great number of field data, primarily from high-speed rolling block, were evaluated and applied to our roll pass design practice.

    • Metal flow: spread, forward slip, neutral angle, work diameter, tension correction for spread and forward slip, steel grade effect, free side contour, etc.
    • Force, torque and power requirements: mean flow stress, roll separating force, contact area, shape factor, lever arm ratio, torque, power requirement, effective strain, high speed rolling (e.g. 3000/s), tension effect
    • Roll deformation and strength, mill vibration: elastic deformation of rolls and stand, stress concentration, roll strength and stand capacity , roll material, mill vibration
    • Heat transfer and temperature: on roll table, during reheating, during rolling, water box cooling, free and controlled air cooling, heat transfer coefficient
    • Microstructure formation: dynamic recrystallization, static and metadynamic recrystallization, grain growth, phase transformation during controlled cooling and during casting (to be completed), rolled product Properties
    • Material data and boundary conditions: flow stress model, friction, specific heat, E-modulus and poison ratio, thermal conductivity, temperature conductivity, density, etc.


    • Spread during rolling in grooves.
    • On rolling process modeling - mathematical models
    • On rolling process modeling - model development
    • Forward slip and determination during rolling
    • Roll pass technical series
    • General considerations on roll pass design
    • Spread influence factors
    • Introduction to Shinokura spread model
    • Shinokura-Li spread model and validation
    • Ekelund spread determination
    • Introduction to wire rod block and sizing mill
    • Roll pass related US patents
    • Application notes for metal pass online programs
    • Cookies and related setup
    • Metal Pass user agreement
    • Development of Model-Intensive Web-based Rolling Mill Applications (Tech Paper)


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