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ROLL PASS DESIGN - AutoForm Series

Metal Pass has two sets of roll pass design programs available: AutoForm Series and FreeForm Series. The two sets of roll pass design software are developed for different purposes.

AutoForm series. The programs in the AutoForm series are full-automatic, easy-to-use. They require very little, even no roll pass design experience. The user only needs to fill in basic operation parameters to the web form, and the system will run the loop for trial-and-error to design every parameter for you. Roll pass parameters are verified during automatic trial-and-error design, until all the critical factors (fill ratio, aspect ratio, bite angle, etc.) are in the safe range. Our solid roll pass design knowledge and sophisticated process models make it possible for this full-automatic design.

Recent developments include the addition of Box-Box-Box two-pass sequence for passes from breakdown, roughing to finishing passes, and the expansion of the Billet-Box-Square-Oval-Round roughing to flexibly design large sizes (e.g. 700mm ingot/bloom).

Primary applications in this series currently consist of:

  • Round-Oval-Round (2 Passes, Round-Oval and Oval-Round).  
  • Square-Diamond-Square (2 Passes, Square-Diamond and Diamond-Square)
  • Box-Square-Oval-Round (4-pass train to roll from square to round)
  • Box-Oval-Round (3-pass train to roll from square to round)
  • Round-Box-Square (2 Passes, to roll from round to square)
  • Box-Box (2 Passes, Two Box passes)

    Metal Pass LLC also provides FreeForm series. This is a powerful series particularly designed for experienced roll pass designer. It allows a roll pass designer to complete up to 30 passes in a single project, from rough, intermediate, pre-finishing to finishing (wire block) passes. User has freedom to specify design procedures for spread and forward for every pass. User can either follow the system determined spread factors calculated from our process models, or assign his own spread factor value. As a powerful feature, tension correction for spread and forward can be used if the user select to. Though this set of programs apply for full range of roll pass, two case of application are in special advantageous: one is for high speed wire block (No-Twist Mill, etc.) which is particularly challenging for roll pass designer. Another is to study existing pass schedule for improvement, or to modify the existing pass schedule to create new one. Applications in this section consist of:

    • Round-Oval-Round (for multiple passes)
    • Square-Diamond-Square (for multiple passes)

    Related software packages. Usually after pass design is done, power and force calculation should be performed to check whether the mill (roll, motor, transmission system, etc.) has sufficient capacity to roll the product(s). For this purpose Metal Pass has developed a set of programs for mill power and force calculation, as follows:


    • Round-Oval (1 pass)
    • Oval-Round (1 pass)
    • Round-Oval-Round (2 passes)
    • Square-Oval (1 pass)
    • Box-Box  (1 pass)
    • Square-Diamond (1 pass)
    • Diamond-Square (1 pass)
    • Square-Diamond-Square (2 passes)
    • General Estimation (1 passes)

    Process models used for the software development. Design procedures are based on our technical development to combine recent results worldwide, primarily from Germany, Japan and USA. One of the data sources, for example, is a 10-year project in Germany in a 4-stand continuous lab mill (up to 70m/s) with controlled cooling and full measurement capabilities. Its result was recorded in various reports, which are available for Metal Pass development. Results from Japanese colleagues (e.g. Shinokura) were also employed. However, formulation from Shinokura was heavily expanded to reflect modern rolling practice such as speed (up to over 100 m/s), tension (especially in the rolling block), roll and stock materials, etc.). A great amount of field data, primarily from high-speed rolling block, were evaluated and applied to our roll pass design practice.

    • Metal flow: spread, forward slip, neutral angle, work diameter, tension correction for spread and forward slip, steel grade effect, free side contour, etc.
    • Force, torque and power requirements: mean flow stress, roll separating force, contact area, shape factor, lever arm ratio, torque, power requirement, effective strain, high speed rolling (e.g. 3000/s), tension effect
    • Roll deformation and strength, mill vibration: elastic deformation of rolls and stand, stress concentration, roll strength and stand capacity , roll material, mill vibration
    • Heat transfer and temperature: on roll table, during reheating, during rolling, water box cooling, free and controlled air cooling, heat transfer coefficient
    • Microstructure formation: dynamic recrystallization, static and metadynamic recrystallization, grain growth, phase transformation during controlled cooling during casting (to be completed), rolled product Properties
    • Material data and boundary conditions: flow stress model, friction, specific heat, E-modulus and poison ratio, thermal conductivity, temperature conductivity, density, etc.


    • Spread during rolling in grooves.
    • On rolling process modeling - mathematical models
    • On rolling process modeling - model development
    • Forward slip and determination during rolling
    • Roll pass technical series
    • General considerations on roll pass design
    • Spread influence factors
    • Introduction to Shinokura spread model
    • Shinokura-Li spread model and validation
    • Ekelund spread determination
    • Introduction to wire rod block and sizing mill
    • Roll pass related US patents
    • Application notes for metal pass online programs
    • Cookies and related setup
    • Metal Pass user agreement
    • Development of Model-Intensive Web-based Rolling Mill Applications (Tech Paper)


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